Diabetologia journal published a list of risk factors for type 2 diabetes. In total, 34 factors were identified, of which 19 increase and 15 reduce the risk of developing the disease. Another 21 factors were recognized as potential ones. It was shown that insomnia is one of the factors contributing to diabetes.
The study used the so-called Mendelian randomization, which evaluates genetic variation and serves to determine causal relationships between potential risk factors and their effects on health. The authors performed the meta-analysis of the data obtained from 1,360 articles published on PubMed and identified around 97 potential risk factors. They also reviewed the summary data from the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis consortium (74,124 cases of type 2 diabetes and 824,006 controls of European origin).
It was possible to identify causal patterns for 34 potential factors. Of these, 19 were shown to be risk factors, and 15 - protective ones. Also, it turned out that people who have insomnia have a 17% higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who do not have sleep problems. It is the first time that insomnia was recognised as a risk factor.
Depression, smoking, caffeine abuse, high blood pressure, excess weight and excess BMI, etc., were also named as potential triggers of diabetes. Among the factors reducing the risk of the disease are sufficient levels of alanine in the blood plasma, high-density cholesterol, the presence of vitamin D, and normal levels of testosterone and globulin, etc.
When adjusted for BMI in adulthood, the number of risk factors for diabetes decreased to 8, however, insomnia remained among them, as did smoking and high blood pressure. Among the positive factors were the levels of high-density cholesterol, testosterone and other sex hormones.
Of the 21 potential factors, such bad habits as alcohol consumption, skipping breakfast in the morning, irregular or lack of sleep were noted. Even though their effect on the development of type 2 diabetes has not been clearly stated, it remains very likely.
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According to the International Diabetes Federation, in 2015, nine out of 100 adults suffered from diabetes type 2.
Based on springer.com